1960

Nigeria declares independence from Britain in October. Three years later, it becomes a republic.

 

1966

In January of 1966, a group of army officers, consisting mostly of the Ibo peoples, and led by General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, overthrew the central and regional governments, killed the prime minister, took control of the government, and got rid of the federal system of government to replace it with a central government with many Ibos as advisors. This precipitated riots and many Ibos were killed in the process. In July of the same year, a group of northern army officers revolted against the government (beginning a long history of military coups), killed General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, and appointed the army chief of staff, General Yakubu Gowon as the head of the new military government.

 

In 1967, Gowon moved to split the existing 4 regions of Nigeria into 12 states. However, the military governor of the Eastern Region (Colonel Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu) refused to accept the division of the Eastern Region, and declared the Eastern Region an independent republic called Biafra. This led to a civil war between Biafra and the remainder of Nigeria. The war started in June 1967, and continued until Biafra surrendered on January 15, 1970 after over 1 million people had died.

 

1970s

1970

The Biafra secessionists capitulate in January. Successive governments promise elections but military rule continues. During the early 1970s major reconstruction of the areas that were formerly part of Biafra undertaken.

 

1979

Nigeria returns to civilian government rule in October, electing Sheu Shagari as President of the Second Republic.

1980s

1983

Shagari regime is deposed in December, as a military coup ousts the democratically elected government.

1985

A second coup ushers in a regime headed by Gen. Ibrahim Babangida (picture to right). Babangida later promises new elections.

1990-97

1993

Nigerians go to the polls in June, elect Social Democratic Party candidate Moshood Abiola as the new president of the country with 58 percent of the vote. On the eve of election results, General Babangida annuls the election. The United States suspends aid as a political crisis ensues. Eleven die in riots protesting military rule.

Moshood Abiola

Babangida steps down in August and chooses interim government.  Gen. Sani Abacha seizes power in November.

1994

Nigerian police arrest Abiola in June after he declares himself president of the country. In July, a federal high court charges Abiola with treason for declaring himself president.

 

Sani Abacha

Wole Soyinka, winner of 1986 Nobel Prize for literature, flees Nigeria in November

 

The 50,000-member Nigerian Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas Workers declares a strike as the government sends in soldiers to replace workers in July. The strike increases the price of crude oil worldwide. Most of Nigeria's oil workers return to their jobs in September.

Ken Saro-Wiwa

1995

In October, General Abacha vows he will step down in three years after reforms are complete.

 

Nigeria's military government hangs nine political activists in November, including well-known playwright Ken Saro-Wiwa, who was accused of involvement in the killings of four pro-government traditional chiefs in 1994.

Nigeria is suspended from the Commonwealth, the 52-member organization grouping Britain and its former colonies, after the hangings.

1996

Kudirat Abiola, the outspoken wife of detained Nigerian presidential claimant Moshood Abiola, is shot and killed while being driven along a Lagos street in June.

 

1997

Exiled writer Wole Soyinka is charged in absentia with treason in March by the country's military government.

 

1998

May 7: Nigeria announces that it has freed 142 prisoners on orders of General Abacha.

 

June 8: Abacha dies at his villa in the Nigerian capital. He is quickly replaced by a close ally, Maj. Gen. Abdulsalam Abubakar.

June 9: The Clinton administration offers improved ties with Nigeria's new military government if it frees political prisoners and moves toward democratic reform.

 

June 12: Hundreds of Nigerians hold scattered protests in Lagos to demand an end to military rule. They are dispersed by troops and police.

 

July 3: Nigeria's new military government confirms that they intend to release the country's political prisoners, including Moshood Abiola.

Maj. Gen. Abdulsalam Abubakar

July 7: Nigeria's imprisoned political leader, Moshood Abiola, dies of an apparent heart attack as he talks with Nigerian officials and senior U.S. diplomats about how to resolve the country's five-year-old political crisis.

 

July 20: In a major television address, Maj. Gen. Abubakar promises that free elections will be held in early 1999 and a civilian sworn in as president of Nigeria on May 29.

 

1999

January 20: Nigerian and international election monitors declared that local elections in December and state elections Jan. 9 were fair. The country enters high campaign season for the election of its first national civilian leadership in 15 years.

February 27: Nigerians vote for a civilian president in an election marred by claims of voter fraud and irregularities. Two days later, Nigeria's election commission confirms the winner: former military ruler Olusegun Obasanjo.